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2019考研英语语法解析:复合句

2018-05-16 09:36

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  复合句(Complex Sentence)

  一个主句和一个以上的从句所构成的句子称为复合句,也称为主从复合句。复合句通常由关联词把主句和从句连接起来。

  例句: Other models exist that are hybrids of these three, such as delayed openaccess, where journals allow only subscribers to read a paper for the first six months before making it freely available to everyone who wishes to see it. (选自2008年Text 2)

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中主干结构是Other models exist;that引导的定语从句修饰models,而在从句中又套了一个由where引导的定语从句修饰openaccess;在 where从句中,before引导的时间状语从句中有一个who引导的定语从句修饰 everyone。

  译文: 其他存在的模式都是由以上三种模式相结合的产物。比如延缓式广开门路的模式,前6个月只允许付费的订阅者查阅相关论文,之后,才对大众免费开放。

  例句: However, whether such a sense of fairness evolved independently in capuchins and humans, or whether it stems from the common ancestor that the species had 35 million years ago, is,as yet,an unanswered question. (选自2005年Text 1)

  分析: 该句是复合句,本句中由or连接两个并列主语从句,后接系表结构is an unanswered question;定语从句that the species had 35 million years ago修饰the common ancestor。

  译文: 但是这种公平意识是在卷尾猴和人类身上各自独立演化而成的,还是来自于3500年前他们共同的祖先,这还是一个悬而未决的问题。

  复合句根据关联词在句中的作用可分为如下类型:

  (一)名词性从句(Noun Clause)

  名词性从句包括主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句。(见第一章代词“九、连接代词”)

  (二)状语从句(Adverbial Clause)

  状语从句根据其意义可分为:

  1. 时间状语从句

  时间状语从句常用when,whenever(任何时候),as(当……时候、随着),while(在……期间,与……同时),before,after,since(自……以来),as soon as,until/till(直到),once(一旦)等连词引导。

  例句: All those left undone may sound great in theory, but even the truest believer has great difficulty when it comes to specifics. (1999年第19题)

  分析: 该句是并列复合句,其中left undone作后置定语修饰those。

  译文: 所有剩下来没做的那些事,理论上听起来很重要,但即使是对此深信不疑者,当谈到具体事宜时也不免有很大困难。

  例句: The school board listened quietly as John read the demands that his followers had been demonstrating for.

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中that his followers had been demonstrating for为一定语从句修饰 the demands。

  译文: 当约翰读着同伴们的要求时,校董事会静静地听着。

  例句: Whenever we hear of a natural disaster, even in a distant part of the world, we feel sympathy for the people affected. (1995年第16题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中过去分词affected作定语修饰the people。

  译文: 无论何时当我们听说一起自然灾害时,即使它发生在世界某一遥远的地区,我们都会同情受灾的人。

  例句: More than 60, 000 people have purchased the PTKs since they first became available without prescriptions last year, according to Doug Fogg, chief operating officer of Identigene,which makes the overthecounter kits. (选自2009年Text 2)

  分析: 该句是复合句,主句部分是More than 60,000 people have purchased the PTKs。since引导一个时间状语从句,which makes the overthecounter kits是修饰 Identigene的定语从句;其中overthecounter意为“不需处方就可以出售的”,chief operating officer of Identigene作Doug Fogg的同位语。

  译文: 据生产这种非处方产品套装的“爱的基因”公司的首席运营官道格·福格说,自从去年首次不需要处方就可购买亲子鉴定产品套装以后,已经有6万多人参与购买。

  注意: 时间状语从句还可由the moment/the instant/the minute(一……就)等名词,every time/each time(每当……)等名词和directly/instantly(一……就)等副词引导,这些词都起到连词的作用。

  例句: If individuals are awakened each time they begin a dream phase of sleep, they are likely to become irritable even though their total amount of sleep has been sufficient.

  分析: 该句是复合句,本句是由一个主句they are likely to become irritable和三个从句if individuals are...,each time they begin...和even though...组成。

  译文: 睡眠的人每次开始进入梦乡时就被叫醒,即使他们的睡眠总量是足够的,他们也很可能变得烦躁易怒。

  2. 地点状语从句

  地点状语从句常由where(哪里,在……地方),wherever(无论什么地方)引导。

  例句: The upside is the possibilities contained in knowing that everything is up to us; where before we were experts in the array of limitations, now we become authorities of what is possible.(2011年第50题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,主干部分是The upside is the possibilities;where before we were experts..., now we become authorities...;其中,分词短语contained in knowing that everything is up to us作后置定语修饰the possibilities,knowing that everything is up to us作介词in的宾语;where后引导一个地点状语从句。expert in意为“专长于,熟练应对……的专家”;be up to意为“胜任,由……负责”。

  译文: 其真正意义在于,洞察一切皆取决于我们自身,即拥有了无限可能;我们曾经是熟练应对各种局限的专家,而如今成为驾驭各种可能性的专家。

  例句: Wherever you go you will observe great changes that have taken place in this city over the past years.

  分析: 该句是复合句,定语从句that have taken place in this city over the past years修饰 changes。

  译文: 不管你走到哪里,你都会看到那座城市在过去到现在的几年间发生的巨大变化。

  3. 原因状语从句

  原因状语从句常由because,as,since,now that,not that...but that(不是因为……而是因为……),in that,for fear that,considering that,seeing that,on the ground that引导。because,as,since的区别在于because语气最强,可与not,just,only连用,也可用于强调句中;其次为as,原因比较明显或为已知原因;最后为since,对方已知事实,相当于“既然”。

  例句: Since it is too late to change my mind now, Im committed to carrying out the plan. (1996年第38题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中短语be committed(to)意为“同意承担,答应做某事”。

  译文: 既然现在改变主意为时已晚,我就答应执行这项计划。

  例句: Hydrogen is the fundamental element of the universe in that it provides the building blocks from which the other elements are produced.

  分析: 该句是复合句,which引导的定语从句修饰blocks,其中be produced from...意为“靠……生产/获得”。in that引导原因状语从句。

  译文: 氢是构成天地万物的基本元素,因为它可以提供构成其他物质的原材料。

  例句: The behavioral sciences have been slow to change partly because the explanatory items often seem to be directly observed and partly because other kinds of explanations have been hard to find. (2002年第62题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,主句部分为The behavioral sciences have been slow to change,从句是由because引导的两个原因状语从句,partly because...partly because... 是一组常见搭配,意为“部分原因是……”。

  译文: 行为科学之所以发展缓慢,部分原因是用来解释行为的依据似乎往往是直接观察到的,部分原因是其他的解释方式一时难以找到。

  例句: Yesterday she was absent from class, not because she was ill, just  because she went home to see her sick parents.

  分析: 该句是复合句。

  译文: 昨天她缺课,不是因为她生病了,而是因为她回家看望生病的双亲去了。

  例句: It was because he was ill that he didnt write to me.

  分析: 该句是复合句,为强调句型。

  译文: 正是因为他生病了才没有给我写信。

  (以上两句中because均不可换成as或since。)

  4.目的状语从句

  目的状语从句常用that(为了,以便),so that(为了,以便),in order that(为了,以便), lest(以防,以免)连词引导。

  例句: Some journalists often overstate the situation so that their news may create a great sensation. (1998年第28题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,so that引导一个状语从句表示目的。

  译文: 有些报界人士常常夸大事态以使他们的新闻产生轰动效应。

  例句: We sent the package by air mail in order that it might reach them in time.

  分析: 该句是复合句。

  译文: 这件包裹我们用航空邮寄,以便他们能及时收到。

  5.结果状语从句

  结果状语从句常用that(结果,以致),so that(结果,以致),so...that(如此……以致), such...that(这样的……以致)等连词引导。它与目的状语从句不同之处在于目的状语从句中 常常出现情态动词,有时也能从其意义中分辨出。

  例句: Over the years, a large number of overseas students have studied at that university with the result that it has acquired substantial experience in dealing with them.

  分析: 该句是复合句,with the result意为“结果是……,带来某种结果”,引导从句表示结果。

  译文: 多年来,大量留学生在那所大学学习,因此该大学获得了许多与这些学生打交道的经验。

  例句: And home appliances will also become so smart that controlling and operating them will result in the breakout of a new psychological disorder—kitchen rage. (2001年第75题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,so...that后为一状语从句,表示结果;controlling and operating them是从句中的并列主语。

  译文: 家用电器将会变得如此智能化,以至于控制和操作它们会引起一种新的心理疾病——厨房狂躁症。

  6.条件状语从句

  条件状语从句常用if, unless, suppose/supposing, provided/providing(that)(倘若), on condition (that)(如果), as/so long as(只要), in case(如果)引导。

  例句: Circumstances seem to be designed to bring out the best in us and if we feel that we have been “wronged” then we are unlikely to begin a conscious effort to escape from our situation.(2011年第49题)

  分析: 该句由and连接的两个分句构成,其中前一个分句是简单句;后一个分句是if引导的复合句,主句部分是we are unlikely to begin...situation,从句部分是if we feel that we have been “wronged”,that we have been “wronged”作feel的宾语从句。to bring out the best in意为“使……显示出最好的一面”。

  译文: 环境似乎旨在激发我们的最大潜能,如果总感觉“上天待自己不公”,那么我们就不太可能有意识地去努力脱离现状。

  例句: You can arrive in Beijing earlier for the meeting provided you dont mind taking the night train.

  分析: 该句是复合句, provided(that)引导的条件状语从句中mind接动名词taking做其宾语。

  译文: 假如你不介意乘夜班车的话,你可以早点儿到达北京开会。

  7.让步状语从句

  让步状语从句常用although(though), as(尽管,虽然),while(虽然),even if/though(即使),however(不管怎样), whatever(不管,无论什么), whether...or(不管……还是), no matter what/how/where/when。其中although和though意义上无区别,although语气上要强一些,常置于句首。

  例句: While we may be able to sustain the illusion of control through the conscious mind alone, in reality we are continually faced with a question: “Why cannot I make myself do this or achieve that? ” (2011年第47题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,主干部分是“while we may be able to sustain the illusion of control, we are faced with...do this or achieve that?”。其中,介词短语through the conscious mind alone作状语,表示方式,修饰谓语sustain;do this or achieve that作宾语myself的补足语。

  译文: 尽管我们或许可以仅凭意识来维持“控制”这种错觉,但在现实中,我们还是要不断地面临一个问题:“我为什么不能让自己做这个或实现哪个?”

  例句: Research findings show we spend about two hours dreaming every night, no matter what we may have done during the day.

  分析: 该句是复合句,连接代词no matter what(=whatever)在句中作done的宾语。

  译文: 研究结果表明,无论白天发生了什么,我们每个晚上都会做两个小时的梦。

  例句: Even though the daytoday experience of raising kids can be soulcrushingly hard, Senior writes that “the very things that in the moment dampen our moods can later be sources of intense gratification and delight.” (选自2011年Text 4)

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中,主句的主干部分是Senior writes that “the very things can later be sources of intense gratification and delight”,定语从句that in the moment dampen our moods修饰the very things。

  译文: 即使每日抚养孩子的经历艰难到摧残灵魂的地步,但是森尼尔写道“恰恰是那些当时打击我们情绪的事情随后却成为我们极度满足和快乐的源泉”。

  8. 比较状语从句

  比较状语从句常用as...as, than, not so/as...as(不像……一样), the...the(越……越……), as...so...(正如……那样)连接。

  例句: These proposals sought to place greater restrictions on the use and copying of digital information than exist in traditional media. (1999年第10题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,than exist in traditional media是一定语从句修饰restrictions,其完整形式应为than those which exist in traditional media。

  译文: 这些提议力图为数据信息的使用和拷贝建立起比现存的传统媒介中更多的限制。

  例句: As the Internet becomes more and more commercialized, it is in the interest of business to universalize access—after all, the more people online, the more potential customers there are. (选自2001年Text 2)

  分析: 该句是复合句,本句主干为it is in the interest of business to universalize access,as引导一时间状语从句,破折号后的内容是对主句作进一步解释说明。

  译文: 随着互联网日趋商业化,网络普及对商家是有利的——毕竟,上网的人越多,潜在的消费群体就越大。

  9.方式状语从句

  方式状语从句常用as(像,如同), as if/though(好像)连接,其中as if/though引导的从句中谓语动词可以是陈述语气,也可使用虚拟语气。

  例句: For a while it looked as though the making of semiconductors, which America had invented and which sat at the heart of the new computer age, was going to be the next casualty. (选自2000年Text 1)

  分析: 该句是复合句,as though引导的从句作looked的表语,其中表语从句中的主干部分为the making of semiconductors was going to be the next casualty,两个并列定语从句which America had...and which...修饰the making of semiconductors。

  译文: 半导体制造业本为美国所开创,在电脑时代有着举足轻重的作用,但是有段时间也似乎一度濒临崩溃。

  例句: Christie stared angrily at her boss and turned away, as though to go out of the office.(2000年第6题)

  分析: 该句是复合句,从句as though后的完整形式为...as though she were to go out of the office。

  译文: 克里斯蒂愤怒地瞪着她的老板,然后转过身子,好像是要走出办公室。

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